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Cracking the Code: Understanding Roman Numerals for 4, 6, and 9

In the decimal system, Roman numerals represent numbers in the decimal system, but they cannot be used for mathematical operations.

Symbols are used to represent different numbers, with I representing 1, V representing 5, X representing 10, L representing 50, C representing 100, D representing 500, and M representing 1,000.

Roman numeral symbols are listed below:

1 5 10 50 100 500 1,000

The value of a numeral is determined by its position in relation to other symbols. When a symbol of equal or lesser value is placed after another symbol, their values are added. However, if a lesser value symbol is positioned before another symbol, its value is reduced.

VI, or 6, would be read as “five plus one” (5 + 1), and XI, or 11, as “ten plus one” (10 + 1).

The Roman numeral IV, or 4, would be read as “one less than 5” (5 – 1). Likewise, the Roman numeral IX, or 9, would be read as “one less than 10” (10 – 1).

Here is a table of numbers and their Roman numeral equivalents, followed by a more detailed explanation of how to convert them. Just scroll through the table or use Ctrl/Cmd + F to find what you need:

1 I
2 II
4 IV
5 V
6 VI
9 IX
10 X
11 XI
12 XII
14 XIV
15 XV
16 XVI
19 XIX
20 XX
21 XXI
25 XXV
30 XXX
40 XL
50 L
60 LX
70 LXX
90 XC
100 C
101 CI
102 CII
103 CIII
104 CIV
105 CV
200 CC
300 CCC
400 CD
500 D
600 DC
700 DCC
800 DCCC
900 CM
1,000 M
1,001 MI
1,002 MII
1,003 MIII
1,004 MIV
1,005 MV
1,900 MCM
2,000 MM
3,000 MMM

How to Convert a Number into Roman Numerals

Divide the number you’re converting into groups of thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones, and convert each group separately.

To convert 2,014 (the year freeCodeCamp was founded) into Roman numerals, follow these steps:

2,014 = 2,000 + 10 + 4

Once each group has been converted, combine them to get the Roman numeral equivalent:

* 2,000 = MM
* 10 = X
* 4 = IV

2,014 = 2,000 + 10 + 4 = MMXIV

How to Represent Large Numbers in Roman Numerals

There is only a range of 1 to 3,999 in the chart above.

Since 4 and 9 are represented in a different way, this is the case. As you can see from the table above, whenever a 4 or 9 appears (including 40, 90, 400, 900), the Roman numerals are arranged in such a way that they immediately subtract the lesser symbol from the greater one.

Due to the fact that Roman numerals were never fully standardized, the number 4,000 might appear as MMMM.

Since 4 (and 9) have special representations in lower numbers, many consider this invalid.

A vinculum, or a horizontal line above one or more symbols, is a common way to represent larger Roman numerals.

You can multiply a Roman numeral symbol by 1,000 if it has a horizontal line over it.

Roman numeral symbols with the vinculum are as follows:

1,000 5,000 10,000 50,000 100,000 500,000 1,000,000
M or I V X L C D M

Roman numeral symbols, 4,000 would be represented as the following:


To get you started, here is a table of larger numbers and their Roman numeral representations:

4,000 IV
4,001 IVI
4,002 IVII
4,003 IVIII
5,000 V
6,000 VI
7,000 VII
8,000 VIII
9,000 IX
10,000 X
40,000 XL
90,000 XC
400,000 CD
900,000 CM
1,000,000 M

In HTML and CSS, you can add a vinculum or horizontal line over Roman numerals

To add a vinculum to Roman numerals online, wrap the symbols in an element and use CSS.

You can add a horizontal line over the symbol IV in IVIII by wrapping it in a span element and setting its text-decoration property to overline:

<p><span style="text-decoration: overline;">IV</span>III</p>

Which will render the following:


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